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Keywords:

  • Organic light-emitting diodes;
  • Doping;
  • Aluminum tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline);
  • Charge transport
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Facile non-alkaline n-doping of Alq3with LiF is achieved by co-evaporation. Optimal doping not only leads to enhanced device currents and conductivity, but also changes the very nature of carrier injection and transport. Using this scheme, efficient electron injection is achieved without using low-work-function cathodes. A doped transport layer (see figure) inOL EDs leads to balanced injection andtransport of charge carriers and resultsin excellent device performance.