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Keywords:

  • Carbon nanostructures;
  • Catalysts, iron;
  • Catalytic supports;
  • Electrochemical activity;
  • Fullerenes
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Carbon nanocages with one or a few graphitic layers (see figure) are directly grown in the solid state by heat treatment of a carbon–iron mixture at low temperature. Such thin-walled nanocages have a fine size of 3–12 nm and a high surface area of 535 m2 g–1. They are are a superb catalyst support for low-temperature fuel cells and could be applicable in many other fields.