Visualization of Stacking Faults and their Formation in Colloidal Photonic Crystal Films

Authors

  • E. Vekris,

    1. Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H6 (Canada)
    2. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College St., Toronto, ON, M5S3E4 (Canada)
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  • V. Kitaev,

    1. Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H6 (Canada)
    2. hemistry Department, Wilfred Laurier University, 75 University Ave. W., Waterloo, ON, N2L 3C5 (Canada)
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  • D. D. Perovic,

    1. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College St., Toronto, ON, M5S3E4 (Canada)
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  • J. S. Aitchison,

    1. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King's College Road, Toronto, ON, M5S 3G4 (Canada)
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  • G. A. Ozin

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H6 (Canada)
    • Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H6 (Canada)
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  • One of the authors (G.A.O.) is Canada Research Chair of Materials Chemistry. He is deeply grateful to the Natural Sciences and Engineering Council for support of this work. D.D.P. is grateful to the Canadian Institute of Advanced Research for financial support. E.V. thanks Dr. James Pond of Lumerical Solutions, Inc., for helpful technical support, and Naomi Mireille for her insightful comments. Supporting Information is available online from Wiley InterScience or from the author.

Abstract

original image

We demonstrate experimentally that stacking faults give rise to unique optical spectra in self-assembled colloidal crystal films. These defects are shown to affect only bands in the high frequency region, while leaving the fundamental 〈111〉 stopgap unaffected. Stacking faults are revealed to be caused by the incorporation of impurity spheres into the colloidal lattice during growth (pictured), a mechanism common to atomic crystallization.

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