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Keywords:

  • Atomic force microscopy;
  • Charge trapping;
  • Field-effect transistors;
  • Organic electronics
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Scanning Kelvin probe microscopy demonstrates that water-induced charge trapping at the SiO2 dielectric – visualized in real time and space – is responsible for the commonly observed gate-bias-induced threshold-voltage shift in organic field-effect transistors. When a bias is applied to the electrodes, charges are injected onto the SiO2 (see background of the figure). When the contacts are grounded, the charges are released again (foreground picture).