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Keywords:

  • carbon nanostructures;
  • cells;
  • cytotoxicity;
  • drug delivery
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Functionalized carbon nanohorns (f-CNH) are uptaken by macrophages, without affecting cell viability. f-CNH induce the production of reactive oxygen species and of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The level of inflammation, although moderate, should be taken into consideration when using f-CNH for drug delivery. However, it could be exploited as an intrinsic f-CNH adjuvant function for biomedical applications requiring some activation of the immune system.