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Keywords:

  • biocompatible materials;
  • proteins;
  • surface patterning
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Regular nanometer-scale patterning down to a few tens of nanometers and the manufacturing of diffractive optical elements in silk by using the ideas of soft lithography is reported. The unique processing of silk films makes them an ideal substrate to incorporate biological matter (such as small organics, enzymes, proteins, cells). Unprecedented definition in the transverse direction, with features down to few tens of nanometers, is reported.