ITO-free organic solar cells are fabricated on glass and on flexible substrates. The efficiencies of these cells on glass and plastic substrates (3.27% and 2.8%, respectively) were comparable to those of ITO-based devices (3.66% and 2.9%, respectively). Furthermore, in the flexibility test the ITO-free cells on flexible substrates manifested superior mechanical robustness compared with ITO-based cells.
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