Crystalline TiO2 nanotube arrays are synthesized using a two-step process. The Ti foil sample is first treated with an oxidizing agent-containing electrolyte, either H2O2 or (NH4)2S2O8, then anodized at constant voltage in a fluoride-containing electrolyte. The resulting films are directly used for water photoelectrolysis and in dye-sensitized solar cells, see figure.
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