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A General Method for the Anodic Formation of Crystalline Metal Oxide Nanotube Arrays without the Use of Thermal Annealing

Authors

  • Nageh K. Allam,

    1. Physical Chemistry Department, National Research Center Dokki, Cairo 12622 (Egypt)
    2. Current Address: The Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
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  • Karthik Shankar,

    1. The Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (USA)
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  • Craig A. Grimes

    Corresponding author
    1. The Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (USA)
    2. The Department of Electrical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (USA)
    • The Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (USA).
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  • Support of this work by the Department of Energy under grant DE-FG02-06ER15772 is gratefully acknowledged. Nageh K. Allam gratefully acknowledges support under the IFP fellowship provided by the Ford Foundation. We thank Dr. Joe Kulik of the Penn State Materials Research Institute for help with the TEM analysis, and the referees for their helpful comments.

Abstract

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Crystalline TiO2 nanotube arrays are synthesized using a two-step process. The Ti foil sample is first treated with an oxidizing agent-containing electrolyte, either H2O2 or (NH4)2S2O8, then anodized at constant voltage in a fluoride-containing electrolyte. The resulting films are directly used for water photoelectrolysis and in dye-sensitized solar cells, see figure.

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