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Keywords:

  • core/shell materials;
  • in vivo detection;
  • NIR fluorescence;
  • rare-earth nanoparticles
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

NdF3/SiO2 nanoparticles demonstrate highly efficient fluorescence due to successful suppressions of concentration quenching and surface quenching. More interestingly, their excitation and emission peaks with large frequency separation are both in the “near-infrared optical window” of biotissues. In living animal studies, the detecting depth can reach 1 cm by using a small dose of such nanomaterials.