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Keywords:

  • folding;
  • lithography;
  • MEMS;
  • self-assembly;
  • thin films
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Thin films of metal and polymer are patterned with varying geometry, moduli, and initial stresses to fold into complex 3D structures. In the schematic (top) the rigid segments, flexible hinges, and hollow areas are visible. In the optical and fluorescent micrograph below, cells were cultured on the self-assembled structures, and fluoresce green as they are alive.