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Keywords:

  • Actuator;
  • Artificial pupil;
  • Non-ionic;
  • Plasticizer;
  • Poly(vinyl chloride)
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

A PVC gel pupil that can elongate and change its curvature in response to an applied voltage of 400 V, with a deformation time of about 6 s, is demosntrated. The displacement in the radial direction was about 470 μm, which corresponded to approximately 100% of the thickness of the pupil, with a leak current at the nanoampere level.