Potential and Bottlenecks of Bioreactors in 3D Cell Culture and Tissue Manufacturing

Authors

  • David Wendt,

    1. Departments of Surgery and Biomedicine University Hospital Basel Hebelstrasse 20, 4031 Basel (Switzerland)
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  • Stefania A. Riboldi,

    1. Departments of Surgery and Biomedicine University Hospital Basel Hebelstrasse 20, 4031 Basel (Switzerland)
    2. Bioengineering Laboratories S.p.A Viale Cesare Cattaneo 20 22063 Cantù, CO (Italy)
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  • Margherita Cioffi,

    1. Laboratory of Biological Structure Mechanics Department of Structural Engineering Politecnico di Milano Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32 20133 Milano (Italy)
    2. IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi Via R. Galeazzi 4, 20161 Milano (Italy)
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  • Ivan Martin

    Corresponding author
    1. Departments of Surgery and Biomedicine University Hospital Basel Hebelstrasse 20, 4031 Basel (Switzerland)
    • Departments of Surgery and Biomedicine University Hospital Basel Hebelstrasse 20, 4031 Basel (Switzerland).
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Abstract

Over the last decade, we have witnessed an increased recognition of the importance of 3D culture models to study various aspects of cell physiology and pathology, as well as to engineer implantable tissues. As compared to well-established 2D cell-culture systems, cell/tissue culture within 3D porous biomaterials has introduced new scientific and technical challenges associated with complex transport phenomena, physical forces, and cell–microenvironment interactions. While bioreactor-based 3D model systems have begun to play a crucial role in addressing fundamental scientific questions, numerous hurdles currently impede the most efficient utilization of these systems. We describe how computational modeling and innovative sensor technologies, in conjunction with well-defined and controlled bioreactor-based 3D culture systems, will be key to gain further insight into cell behavior and the complexity of tissue development. These model systems will lay a solid foundation to further develop, optimize, and effectively streamline the essential bioprocesses to safely and reproducibly produce appropriately scaled tissue grafts for clinical studies.

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