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Keywords:

  • cellular structures;
  • network structures;
  • phase separation

Abstract

Network (sponge) and cellular structures are often seen in various types of materials. Materials with such structures are generally characterized by light weight and high mechanical strength. The usefulness of such materials is highlighted, for example, by the remarkable material properties of bone tissue, which often has a highly porous structure. In artificial materials, plastic and metallic foams and breads have such structures. Here, we describe a physical principle for producing network and cellular structures using phase separation, and its potential applications to the morphological control of materials spanning from soft to hard matter.