The use of aqueous dispersions of polystyrene sulfonate-stabilized graphene sheets for the fabrication of nanocomposites with higher-order 3D architectures is demonstrated using two examples of template-directed assembly. Macroscopic sponge-like polymer–graphene scaffolds are readily produced by directional freeze casting, while hollow graphene microspheres are prepared by electrostatically induced assembly on positively charged polymer beads.
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