Recent Advances in White Organic Light-Emitting Materials and Devices (WOLEDs)



WOLEDs offer new design opportunities in practical solid-state lighting and could play a significant role in reducing global energy consumption. Obtaining white light from organic LEDs is a considerable challenge. Alongside the development of new materials with improved color stability and balanced charge transport properties, major issues involve the fabrication of large-area devices and the development of low-cost manufacturing technology. This Review will describe the types of materials (small molecules and polymers) that have been used to fabricate WOLEDs. A range of device architectures are presented and appraised.