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Keywords:

  • adhesives;
  • biomedical applications;
  • biomimetics;
  • stimuli-responsive materials
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Inspired by the sandcastle worm, fluid complex coacervates of polyelectrolytes were formulated as water-borne underwater adhesives. The partially immiscible fluid phase can be delivered underwater and sets into a weight-bearing solid triggered by a change in the pH or temperature. Irreversible hardening occurs through oxidative coupling between catechol and primary amine sidechains.