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Keywords:

  • bionanotechnology;
  • cardiomyocytes;
  • direct laser writing;
  • tissue scaffolds
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Elastic 3D scaffolds (see figure) are fabricated into a biocompatible photoresist using direct laser writing. These scaffolds can be rhythmically deformed by single beating cardiomyocytes and calibration with atomic force microscopy indicates that cellular forces down to 10–20 nN are detectable with the setup.