Colloidal crystals have shown great potential as versatile templates for the fabrication of patterned micro- and nanostructures with complex architectures and novel properties. The patterning of functional crystalline materials in two and three dimensions is essential to the realization of their applications in many technologically important fields. This article highlights some recent progress in the fabrication of 2D and 3D patterned crystalline materials with the assistance of colloidal crystals. By combining a bioinspired synthetic strategy based on a transient amorphous phase with a colloidal-crystal templating method, unique 3D ordered macroporous (3DOM) calcite single crystals can be created. Moreover, patterned arrays of regular ZnO nanopillars with controlled size, shape, and orientation can be fabricated via a facile wet chemical approach by using masks derived from monolayer colloidal crystals (MCC).
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