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Keywords:

  • hydrogels;
  • immobilization;
  • photolithography;
  • proteins;
  • semiconductors
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

A photosensitive hydrogel film containing a photocleavable protecting group is attached to silicon oxide. Projection photolithography is used to generate carboxylic groups in selective patterns on this film, to which proteins are coupled through their primary amine groups. The carboxylic groups on the proteins are chemically protected and the process is repeated to sequentially pattern additional proteins on the hydrogel surface.