Polymer–Fullerene Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells



Solution-processed bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices have gained serious attention during the last few years and are established as one of the leading next generation photovoltaic technologies for low cost power production. This article reviews the OPV development highlights of the last two decades, and summarizes the key milestones that have brought the technology to today’s efficiency performance of over 7%. An outlook is presented on what will be required to drive this young photovoltaic technology towards the next major milestone, a 10% power conversion efficiency, considered by many to represent the efficiency at which OPV can be adopted in wide-spread applications. With first products already entering the market, sufficient lifetime for the intended application becomes more and more critical, and the status of OPV stability as well as the current understanding of degradation mechanisms will be reviewed in the second part of this article.