Multidimensional Architectures for Functional Optical Devices



Materials exhibiting multidimensional structure with characteristic lengths ranging from the nanometer to the micrometer scale have extraordinary potential for emerging optical applications based on the regulation of light–matter interactions via the mesoscale organization of matter. As the structural dimensionality increases, the opportunities for controlling light–matter interactions become increasingly diverse and powerful. Recent advances in multidimensional structures have been demonstrated that serve as the basis for three-dimensional photonic-bandgap materials, metamaterials, optical cloaks, highly efficient low-cost solar cells, and chemical and biological sensors. In this Review, the state-of-the-art design and fabrication of multidimensional architectures for functional optical devices are covered and the next steps for this important field are described.