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Keywords:

  • Thin films;
  • Photovoltaic devices;
  • Solar cells;
  • Kesterite materials;
  • Copper-zinc-tin-chalcogenides
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A composite liquid deposition approach merging the concepts of solution and particle-based coating for multinary chalcogenide materials is demonstrated. Photovoltaic absorbers based on earth-abundant Cu–Zn–Sn–S–Se kesterites show exceptional phase purity and are incorporated into solar cells with power conversion efficiency above 9.6%, bringing the state of the art of kesterite photovoltaic materials to a level suitable for possible commercialization.