Polymeric Aqueous Biphasic Systems for Non-Contact Cell Printing on Cells: Engineering Heterocellular Embryonic Stem Cell Niches



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An optimized polymeric aqueous two-phase system allows direct and non-contact printing of cells onto a monolayer of living cells in arbitrary shapes as well as in a high-density microarray format to create heterocellular microenvironments and study the effect of direct cell–cell interactions on cell fate. The entire process is performed in aqueous media to support full cell viability and functionality.