The non-volatile polarization of a ferroelectric is a promising candidate for digital memory applications. Ferroelectric capacitors have been successfully integrated with silicon electronics, where the polarization state is read out by a device based on a field effect transistor configuration. Coupling the ferroelectric polarization directly to the channel of a field effect transistor is a long-standing research topic that has been difficult to realize due to the properties of the ferroelectric and the nature of the interface between the ferroelectric and the conducting channel. Here, we report on the fabrication and characterization of two promising capacitor-less memory architectures.
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