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Advanced Materials

Beyond Intercalation-Based Li-Ion Batteries: The State of the Art and Challenges of Electrode Materials Reacting Through Conversion Reactions

Authors

  • Jordi Cabana,

    1. Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (USA)
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  • Laure Monconduit,

    1. Institut Charles Gerhardt-CNRS Université Montpellier II, Place Eugène Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier (France) and ALISTORE-ERI European Research Institute.
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  • Dominique Larcher,

    1. Laboratoire de Réactivité et Chimie des Solides, Université de Picardie Jules Verne, CNRS UMR6007, 33 rue Saint Leu 80039 Amiens (France) and ALISTORE-ERI European Research Institute.
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  • M. Rosa Palacín

    Corresponding author
    1. Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain) and ALISTORE-ERI European Research Institute
    • Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain) and ALISTORE-ERI European Research Institute.
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Abstract

Despite the imminent commercial introduction of Li-ion batteries in electric drive vehicles and their proposed use as enablers of smart grids based on renewable energy technologies, an intensive quest for new electrode materials that bring about improvements in energy density, cycle life, cost, and safety is still underway. This Progress Report highlights the recent developments and the future prospects of the use of phases that react through conversion reactions as both positive and negative electrode materials in Li-ion batteries. By moving beyond classical intercalation reactions, a variety of low cost compounds with gravimetric specific capacities that are two-to-five times larger than those attained with currently used materials, such as graphite and LiCoO2, can be achieved. Nonetheless, several factors currently handicap the applicability of electrode materials entailing conversion reactions. These factors, together with the scientific breakthroughs that are necessary to fully assess the practicality of this concept, are reviewed in this report.

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