Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have rapidly progressed in recent years due to their unique characteristics and potential applications in flat panel displays. Significant advancements in top-emitting OLEDs have driven the development of large-size screens and microdisplays with high resolution and large aperture ratio. After a brief introduction to the architecture and types of top-emitting OLEDs, the microcavity theory typically used in top-emitting OLEDs is described in detail here. Then, methods for producing and understanding monochromatic (red, green, and blue) and white top-emitting OLEDs are summarized and discussed. Finally, the status of display development based on top-emitting OLEDs is briefly addressed.