Interferometric lithography (IL) is a powerful technique for the definition of large-area, nanometer-scale, periodically patterned structures. Patterns are recorded in a light-sensitive medium, such as a photoresist, that responds nonlinearly to the intensity distribution associated with the interference of two or more coherent beams of light. The photoresist patterns produced with IL are a platform for further fabrication of nanostructures and growth of functional materials and are building blocks for devices. This article provides a brief review of IL technologies and focuses on various applications for nanostructures and functional materials based on IL including directed self-assembly of colloidal nanoparticles, nanophotonics, semiconductor materials growth, and nanofluidic devices. Perspectives on future directions for IL and emerging applications in other fields are presented.