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Advanced Materials

Self-Healing Materials

Authors

  • Martin D. Hager,

    Corresponding author
    1. Laboratory of Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry (IOMC), Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany)
    2. Dutch Polymer Institute (DPI), 5600 AX Eindhoven (The Netherlands)
    • Laboratory of Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry (IOMC), Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany).
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  • Peter Greil,

    1. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)
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  • Christoph Leyens,

    1. Institute of Materials Science, Technical University Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)
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  • Sybrand van der Zwaag,

    1. Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Fundamentals of Advanced Materials, Technical University Delft, 2629 HS Delft (The Netherlands)
    2. Dutch Polymer Institute (DPI), 5600 AX Eindhoven (The Netherlands)
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  • Ulrich S. Schubert

    Corresponding author
    1. Laboratory of Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry (IOMC), Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany)
    2. Dutch Polymer Institute (DPI), 5600 AX Eindhoven (The Netherlands)
    • Laboratory of Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry (IOMC), Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany).
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Abstract

Self-healing materials are able to partially or completely heal damage inflicted on them, e.g., crack formation; it is anticipated that the original functionality can be restored. This article covers the design and generic principles of self-healing materials through a wide range of different material classes including metals, ceramics, concrete, and polymers. Recent key developments and future challenges in the field of self-healing materials are summarised, and generic, fundamental material-independent principles and mechanism are discussed and evaluated.

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