Emerging Transparent Electrodes Based on Thin Films of Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene, and Metallic Nanostructures



Transparent electrodes are a necessary component in many modern devices such as touch screens, LCDs, OLEDs, and solar cells, all of which are growing in demand. Traditionally, this role has been well served by doped metal oxides, the most common of which is indium tin oxide, or ITO. Recently, advances in nano-materials research have opened the door for other transparent conductive materials, each with unique properties. These include CNTs, graphene, metal nanowires, and printable metal grids. This review will explore the materials properties of transparent conductors, covering traditional metal oxides and conductive polymers initially, but with a focus on current developments in nano-material coatings. Electronic, optical, and mechanical properties of each material will be discussed, as well as suitability for various applications.