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Keywords:

  • surface roughness;
  • interaction forces;
  • electrochemical SFA
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

The first surface force measurements under electrochemical potential control between a metal and a ceramic surface across a liquid medium (water) are reported. Our experiments also investigate and reveal how increasing levels of surface roughness and dissimilarity between the potentials of the interacting surfaces influence the strength and range of electric double layer, van der Waals, hydration, and steric forces and how this contributes to deviations from DLVO theory at small distances within aqueous solution.