High-resolution patterns of proteins at multiple length scales are printed by a facile and flexible strategy using a flat elastomeric stamp and direct covalent immobilization onto mixed self-assembled monolayers of tri(ethylene glycol)- and carboxylic acid–hexa(ethylene glycol)-terminated alkanethiols on gold-coated substrates. This is a robust method for generating complex protein arrays with precise control over micrometer- and nanometer-scale pattern geometries while maintaining a protein-adsorption-resistant background.
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