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Keywords:

  • stimuli-responsive materials;
  • hybrid materials;
  • polyelectrolytes;
  • hydrogels;
  • actuators;
  • biomimetic materials
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

A bio-inspired hybrid materials system has been developed by utilizing pH-responsive, poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide) hydrogel as the “muscle” that dynamically and reversibly actuates the embedded microposts and microfins while the sample is submerged. The system is designed to provide uniform directional bending actuation over a large area and integrated with electrochemical and microfluidic cells.