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Keywords:

  • tissue engineering;
  • collagen gel beads;
  • microfluidic system
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

A microfluidic system was used to prepare a large number of size-controlled collagen gel beads to form microtissue units, “cell beads”, as tissue building blocks. By stacking cell beads into a doll-shaped silicone chamber, millimeter-thick tissue with uniform cell density was formed rapidly. The bead structure allowed the application into the 3D printing, achieving automated geometrical control of the formed tissues for the fabrication of functional complex tissues.