Lanthanide-doped nanophosphors stimulated by high-energy photons or β+-particles display characteristic 590, 615, and 692 nm emissions of the Eu3+ activator. These radioluminescent nanophosphors, produced by a thermo degradation process and coated with poly(ethylene glycol), serve as imaging probes as demonstrated in vivo with matrigel inclusions detected by both a custom X-ray luminescence and a conventional small animal optical imaging system.
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