Dual templating methods to control hierarchical meso- and macroscale pores in TiO2electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells are developed. The colloidal assembly of mesoscale particles in holographic lithography macroscopic patterns produces dual templates for hierarchically porous electrodes. The hierarchical TiO2 electrodes show synergistic effects of strong scattering and long charge recombination times, resulting in an efficiency comparable to the efficiency of conventional TiO2 electrodes.
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