p-type ZnO nanowires (NWs) based on a simple hydrothermal technique with a lithium dopant are demonstrated. It is demonstrated that Li substitution of Zn occurrs because of thermally induced migration due to post-annealing in the presence of oxygen. The stable formation of p-type ZnO:Li NWs is revealed using a NW field-effect transistor and a simple n-type ZnO thin film/p-type annealed ZnO:Li NW homojunction diode.
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