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Advanced Materials

Strategies for the Fabrication of Porous Platinum Electrodes

Authors

  • Arne Kloke,

    1. Laboratory for MEMS Applications, Department of Microsystems Engineering–IMTEK, University of Freiburg, Georges-Koehler-Allee 106, 79110 Freiburg, Germany Fax: (+49) 761 203 7322
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  • Felix von Stetten,

    1. Laboratory for MEMS Applications, Department of Microsystems Engineering–IMTEK, University of Freiburg, Georges-Koehler-Allee 106, 79110 Freiburg, Germany Fax: (+49) 761 203 7322
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  • Roland Zengerle,

    1. Laboratory for MEMS Applications, Department of Microsystems Engineering–IMTEK, University of Freiburg, Georges-Koehler-Allee 106, 79110 Freiburg, Germany Fax: (+49) 761 203 7322
    2. BIOSS Centre for Biological Signalling Studies, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg
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  • Sven Kerzenmacher

    Corresponding author
    1. Laboratory for MEMS Applications, Department of Microsystems Engineering–IMTEK, University of Freiburg, Georges-Koehler-Allee 106, 79110 Freiburg, Germany Fax: (+49) 761 203 7322
    • Laboratory for MEMS Applications, Department of Microsystems Engineering–IMTEK, University of Freiburg, Georges-Koehler-Allee 106, 79110 Freiburg, Germany Fax: (+49) 761 203 7322.
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Abstract

Porous platinum is of high technological importance due to its various applications in fuel cells, sensors, stimulation electrodes, mechanical actuators and catalysis in general. Based on a discussion of the general principles behind the reduction of platinum salts and corresponding deposition processes this article discusses techniques available for platinum electrode fabrication. The numerous, different strategies available to fabricate platinum electrodes are reviewed and discussed in the context of their tuning parameters, strengths and weaknesses. These strategies comprise bottom-up approaches as well as top-down approaches. In bottom-up approaches nanoparticles are synthesized in a first step by chemical, photochemical or sonochemical means followed by an electrode formation step by e.g. thin film technology or network formation to create a contiguous and conducting solid electrode structure. In top-down approaches fabrication starts with an already conductive electrode substrate. Corresponding strategies enable the fabrication of substrate-based electrodes by e.g. electrodeposition or the fabrication of self-supporting electrodes by dealloying. As a further top-down strategy, this review describes methods to decorate porous metals other than platinum with a surface layer of platinum. This way, fabrication methods not performable with platinum can be applied to the fabrication of platinum electrodes with the special benefit of low platinum consumption.

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