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Keywords:

  • angiogenesis;
  • patterned neovessels;
  • methacrylic alginate;
  • stereolithography;
  • cell-encapsulation
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

This study presents a “living” microvascular stamp that releases multiple angiogenic factors and subsequently creates functional neovessels with the same pattern as that engraved in the stamp. The stamp consists of live cells that secrete angiogenic factors, an engineered hydrogel matrix that promotes cellular expression of angiogenic factors, and a three-dimensional geometry that localizes the angiogenic factors within the pattern.