On the Existence of A-Site Deficiency in Perovskites and Its Relation to the Electrochemical Performance



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The low range of A-site deficiency in perovskite structures with Ni cations was verified by neutron powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. A thermodynamic approach has been utilized, for the first time, to predict the extent of A-site deficiencies within the perovskite structure, introducing simple prediction criteria that could be adopted for designing advanced materials.