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Keywords:

  • carbon nanotubes;
  • biomaterials;
  • bones;
  • osteoblasts;
  • bidirectional interactions
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) promote calcification during hydroxyapatite (HA) formation by osteoblasts. Primary cultured osteoblasts are incubated with MWCNTs or carbon black. After culture for 3 weeks, the degree of calcification is very high in the 50 μg mL−1 MWCNT group. Transmission electron microscopy shows needle-like crystals around the MWCNTs, and diffraction patterns reveal that the peak of the crystals almost coincides with the known peak of HA.