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Keywords:

  • hierarchical structures;
  • hollow particles;
  • hydrogen production;
  • nanostructures;
  • surfactants
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Secondary building blocks within the cavities of primary silica-architecture building blocks are successfully engineered. The immobilized surfactant directs the selective dissolution and reassembly of dissolved silicate species for the formation of secondary building blocks (hollow nanospheres/nanorods; see figure). Supported TiO2 on nanostructures with multilevel interiors is shown to exhibit significantly enhanced activity in photocatalytic H2 production.