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Real-Time Ion-Flux Imaging in the Growth of Micrometer-Scale Structures and Membranes



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Real-time ion flux imaging: an ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) array is coupled with optical microscopy to image the growth of, and ion flux through, micrometer-scale tubes and membranes built from polyoxometalate clusters. The correlation between the optical and ionic imaging data is excellent, showcasing the use of ISFET arrays for high-resolution spatial and temporal mapping of ionic movements.