Osteophilic modular nanostructured multilayers containing hydroxyapatite nanoparticles complexed with a natural polymer chitosan create an osteoconductive surface for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Coupled with the sustained release of physiological amounts of osteoinductive bone morphogenetic protein over several days from degradable poly(β-amino ester) based multilayers, this single coating results in a synergistic accelerated and upregulated differentiation of MSCs into osteoblasts laying down new bone tissue on orthopedic implants.
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