This review article provides a brief summary of recent research progress on anisotropic wetting on one-dimensional (1D) and directionally patterned surfaces, as well as the technical importance in various applications. Inspiration from natural structures exhibiting anisotropic wetting behavior is first discussed. Development of fabrication techniques for topographically and chemically 1D patterned surfaces and directional nanomaterials are then reviewed, with emphasis on anisotropic behavior with topographically (structurally) patterned surfaces. The basic investigation of anisotropic wetting behavior and theoretical simulations for anisotropic wetting are also further reviewed. Perspectives concerning future direction of anisotropic wetting research and its potential applications in microfluidic devices, lab-on-a-chip, sensor, microreactor and self-cleaning are presented.