Pure dark red emission (650–670nm) of NaYF4:Yb/Er upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) is achieved by manganese ions (Mn2+) doping. In addition, the Mn2+- doping can also control the crystalline phase and size of the resulting UCNPs simultaneously. Drug delivery studies suggest the promise of these UCNPs as drug carriers for intracellular drug delivery and eventually as a multifunctional nanoplatform for simultaneous diagnosis and therapy.
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