A transparent top anode consisting of molybdenum oxide (MoOx) and silver (Ag) is employed in an “inverted-illumination” geometry in conjunction with a thick aluminium (100 nm) bottom contact. The optimised MoOx-Ag-MoOx stack (MAMS) has an optical transmission of 80% at the wavelength of 520 nm, sheet resistance of ∼5 ohm sq−1 and yields conversion efficiencies in 5 cm × 5 cm photoactive-area “sub-modules” of 3.17% - outperforming the equivalent conventional ITO/PEDOT:PSS devices.
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