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Development and Application of Multiple-Probe Scanning Probe Microscopes

Authors

  • Tomonobu Nakayama,

    1. International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044, Japan
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  • Osamu Kubo,

    Corresponding author
    1. International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044, Japan
    • International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044, Japan.
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  • Yoshitaka Shingaya,

    1. International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044, Japan
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  • Seiji Higuchi,

    1. HORIBA, Ltd., 2 Miyanohigashi, Kisshoin, Minami-ku, Kyoto 601-8510, Japan
    2. Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044, Japan
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  • Tsuyoshi Hasegawa,

    1. International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044, Japan
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  • Chun-Sheng Jiang,

    1. Measurement and Characterization Group, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, CO 80401-3305, USA
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  • Taichi Okuda,

    1. Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University, 2-313 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-0046, Japan
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  • Yuji Kuwahara,

    1. Department of Precision Science and Technology, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
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  • Kazuhiro Takami,

    1. KOBELCO Research Institute, Inc., 1-5-5 Takatsuka-dai, Nishi-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 651-2271, Japan
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  • Masakazu Aono

    Corresponding author
    1. International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044, Japan
    • International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044, Japan.
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Abstract

In the research of advanced materials based on nanoscience and nanotechnology, it is often desirable to measure nanoscale local electrical conductivity at a designated position of a given sample. For this purpose, multiple-probe scanning probe microscopes (MP-SPMs), in which two, three or four scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or atomic force microscope (AFM) probes are operated independently, have been developed. Each probe in an MP-SPM is used not only for observing high-resolution STM or AFM images but also for forming an electrical contact enabling nanoscale local electrical conductivity measurement. The world's first double-probe STM (DP-STM) developed by the authors, which was subsequently modified to a triple-probe STM (TP-STM), has been used to measure the conductivities of one-dimensional metal nanowires and carbon nanotubes and also two-dimensional molecular films. A quadruple-probe STM (QP-STM) has also been developed and used to measure the conductivity of two-dimensional molecular films without the ambiguity of contact resistance between the probe and sample. Moreover, a quadruple-probe AFM (QP-AFM) with four conductive tuning-fork-type self-detection force sensing probes has been developed to measure the conductivity of a nanostructure on an insulating substrate. A general-purpose computer software to control four probes at the same time has also been developed and used in the operation of the QP-AFM. These developments and applications of MP-SPMs are reviewed in this paper.

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