Small-molecule organic solar cells with microcavity structures utilizing very thin solar-absorbing active layers are simulated and fabricated. By carefully fine-tuning the in-cell spacer layer and out-of-cell capping layer, highly efficient top-illuminated indium tin oxide-free solar cells are created on glass and flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates with efficiencies of up to 5.5% and 5%, respectively.
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