Liquid Viruses by Nanoscale Engineering of Capsid Surfaces



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Surface engineering of plant virus capsids via cationization (1) and stoichiometric coupling of a polymer surfactant coronal layer (2) produces a highly concentrated, solvent-free liquid virus at 28 °C. These ionic bionanoconstructs are viscoelastic, retain plant infectivity and can be dispersed in a range of organic solvents for aerosol delivery.