Nature's elegant molecular designs and their assemblies with specific structure-property correlations have inspired researchers to design and develop bio-mimics for advanced functional applications. To realize such advanced molecular materials, naturally evolved amino acids are arguably the ideal auxiliaries due to their remarkable molecular/chiral recognition and distinctive sequence specific self-assembling properties. Over the years, this modular approach of derivatizing naphthalenediimides (NDIs) and perylenediimides (PDIs) with amino acids and peptides have resulted in several hitherto unknown molecular assemblies with phenomenal impact on their performance. Derivatization with versatile arylenediimides is especially interesting due to their wide spread applications in fields ranging from biomedicine to electronics. Herein some of these seminal reports of this rapidly emerging field and the design principles embraced are discussed.